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odors, including some bodily odors, are nervous stimulants.
It is possible that the sexual associations of odors have been still
further fortified by a tendency to correlation between a high development
of the olfactory organ and a high development of the sexual apparatus. An
association between a large nose and a large male organ is a very ancient
observation and has been verified occasionally in recent times. There is
normally at puberty a great increase in the septum of the nose, and it is
quite conceivable, in view of the sympathy, which, as we shall see,
certainly exists between the olfactory and sexual region, that the two
regions may develop together under a common influence.
The Romans firmly believed in the connection between a large nose
and a large penis. "Noscitur e naso quanta sit hasta viro,"
stated Ovid. This belief continued to prevail, especially in
Italy, through the middle ages; the physiognomists made much of
it, and licentious women (like Joanna of Naples) were, it
appears, accustomed to bear it in mind, although disappointment
is recorded often to have followed. (See e.g., the quotations and
references given by J.N. Mackenzie, "Physiological and
Pathological Relations between the Nose and the Sexual Apparatus
in Man." _Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin_, No. 82, January,
1898; also Hagen, _Sexuelle Osphresiologie_, pp. 15-19.) A
similar belief as to the association between the sexual impulse
in women and a long nose was evidently common in England in the
sixteenth century, for in Massinger's _Emperor of the East_ (Act
II, Scene I) we read,
"Her nose, which by its length assures me
Of storms at midnight if I fail to pay her
The tribute she expects."
At the present day, a proverb of the Venetian people still
embodies the belief in the connection between a large nose and a
large sexual member.
The probability that such an association tends in many cases to
prevail is indicated not only by the beliefs of antiquity, when
more careful attention was paid to these matters, but by the
testimony of various modern observers, although it does not
appear that any series of exact observations have yet been made.
It may be noted that Marro, in his careful anthropological study
of criminals (_I Caratteri dei Delinquenti_), found no class of
criminals with so large a proportion alike of anomalies of the
nose and anomalies of the genital organs as sexual offenders.
However this may be, it is less doubtful that there is a very intimate
relation both in men and women between the olfactory mucous membrane of
the nose and the whole genital apparatus, that they frequently show a
sympathetic action, that influences acting on the genital sphere will
affect the nose, and occasionally, it is probable, influences acting on
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