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Table of contents
PREFACE
TOUCH-1
TOUCH-2
TOUCH-3 (begin)
TOUCH-3 (end)
TOUCH-4 (begin)
TOUCH-4 (end)
SMELL-1
SMELL-2
SMELL-3.1
SMELL-3.2
SMELL-3.3
SMELL-3.4
SMELL-3.5
SMELL-4 (begin)
SMELL-4 (end)
SMELL-5
HEARING-1
HEARING-2
HEARING-3
VISION-1.1
VISION-1.2
VISION-1.3
VISION-2.1
VISION-2.2
VISION-2.3
VISION-2.4
VISION-3
VISION-4
VISION-5
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

the hallucination then constituted the aura (_Comptes Rendus de 

la Societe de Biologie_, December, 1896). The prevalence of a 

sexual element in olfactory hallucinations has been investigated 

by Bullen, who examined into 95 cases of hallucinations of smell 

among the patients in several asylums. (In a few cases there were 

reasons for believing that peripheral conditions existed which 

would render these hallucinations more strictly illusions.) Of 

these, 64 were women. Sixteen of the women were climacteric 

cases, and 3 of them had sexual hallucinations or delusions. 

Fourteen other women (chiefly cases of chronic delusional 

insanity) had sexual delusions. Altogether, 31 men and women had 

sexual delusions. This is a large proportion. Bullen is not, 

however, inclined to admit any direct connection between the 

reproductive system and the sense of smell. He finds that other 

hallucinations are very frequently associated with the olfactory 

hallucinations, and considers that the co-existence of olfactory 

and sexual troubles simply indicates a very deep and widespread 

nervous disturbance. (F. St. John Bullen, "Olfactory 

Hallucinations in the Insane," _Journal of Mental Science_, July, 

1899.) In order to elucidate the matter fully we require further 

precise inquiries on the lines Bullen has laid down. 

 

It may be of interest to note, in this connection, that smell and 

taste hallucinations appear to be specially frequent in forms of 

religious insanity. Thus, Dr. Zurcher, in her inaugural 

dissertation on Joan of Arc (_Jeanne d'Arc_, Leipzig, 1895, p. 

72), estimates that on the average in such insanity nearly 50 per 

cent, of the hallucinations affect smell and taste; she refers 

also to the olfactory hallucinations of great religious leaders, 

Francis of Assisi, Katherina Emmerich, Lazzaretti, and the 

Anabaptists. 

 

It may well be, as Zwaardemaker has suggested in his _Physiologie des 

Geruchs_, that the nasal congestion at menstruation and similar phenomena 

are connected with that association of smell and sexuality which is 

observable throughout the whole animal world, and that the congestion 

brings about a temporary increase of olfactory sensitiveness during the 

stage of sexual excitation.[43] Careful investigation of olfactory 

acuteness would reveal the existence of such menstrual heightening of its 

acuity. 

 

In a few exceptional, but still quite healthy people, smell would appear 

to possess an emotional predominance which it cannot be said to possess in 

the average person. These exceptional people are of what Binet in his 

study of sexual fetichism calls olfactive type; such persons form a group 

which, though of smaller size and less importance, is fairly comparable to 

the well-known groups of visual type, of auditory type, and of psychomotor 

type. Such people would be more attentive to odors, more moved by 


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