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Table of contents
PREFACE
TOUCH-1
TOUCH-2
TOUCH-3 (begin)
TOUCH-3 (end)
TOUCH-4 (begin)
TOUCH-4 (end)
SMELL-1
SMELL-2
SMELL-3.1
SMELL-3.2
SMELL-3.3
SMELL-3.4
SMELL-3.5
SMELL-4 (begin)
SMELL-4 (end)
SMELL-5
HEARING-1
HEARING-2
HEARING-3
VISION-1.1
VISION-1.2
VISION-1.3
VISION-2.1
VISION-2.2
VISION-2.3
VISION-2.4
VISION-3
VISION-4
VISION-5
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

If, therefore, the odors of flowers have developed because they proved 

useful to the plant by attracting insects or other living creatures, it is 

obvious that the advantage would lie with those plants which could put 

forth an animal sexual odor of agreeable character, since such an odor 

would prove fascinating to animal creatures. We here have a very simple 

explanation of the fundamental identity of odors in the animal and 

vegetable worlds. It thus comes about that from a psychological point of 

view we are not really entering a new field when we begin to discuss the 

influence of perfumes other than those of the animal body. We are merely 

concerned with somewhat more complex or somewhat more refined sexual 

odors; they are not specifically different from the human odors and they 

mingle with them harmoniously. Popular language bears witness to the 

truth of this statement, and the normal and abnormal human odors, as we 

have already seen, are constantly compared to artificial, animal, and 

plant odors, to chloroform, to musk, to violet, to mention only those 

similitudes which seem to occur most frequently. 

 

The methods now employed for obtaining the perfumes universally 

used in civilized lands are three: (1) the extraction of 

odoriferous compounds from the neutral products in which they 

occur; (2) the artificial preparation of naturally occurring 

odoriferous compounds by synthetic processes; (3) the manufacture 

of materials which yield odors resembling those of pleasant 

smelling natural objects. (See, e.g., "Natural and Artificial 

Perfumes," _Nature_, December 27, 1900.) The essential principles 

of most of our perfumes belong to the complex class of organic 

compounds known as terpenes. During recent years a number of the 

essential elements of natural perfumes have been studied, in many 

cases the methods of preparing them artificially discovered, and 

they are largely replacing the use of natural perfumes not only 

for soaps, etc., but for scent essences, though it appears to be 

very difficult to imitate exactly the delicate fragrance achieved 

by Nature. Artificial musk was discovered accidentally by Bauer 

when studying the butyltoluenes contained in a resin extractive. 

Vanillin, the odoriferous principle of the vanilla bean, is an 

aldehyde which was first artificially prepared by Tiemann and 

Haarmann in 1874 by oxidizing coniferin, a glucoside contained in 

the sap of various coniferae, but it now appears to be usually 

manufactured from eugenol, a phenol contained in oil of cloves. 

Piperonal, an aldehyde closely allied to vanillin, is used in 

perfumery under the name of heliotropin and is prepared from oil 

of sassafras and oil of camphor. Cumarine, the material to which 

tonka bean, sweet woodruff, and new-mown hay owe their 

characteristic odors, was synthetically prepared by W.H. Parkin 


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