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Table of contents
PREFACE
TOUCH-1
TOUCH-2
TOUCH-3 (begin)
TOUCH-3 (end)
TOUCH-4 (begin)
TOUCH-4 (end)
SMELL-1
SMELL-2
SMELL-3.1
SMELL-3.2
SMELL-3.3
SMELL-3.4
SMELL-3.5
SMELL-4 (begin)
SMELL-4 (end)
SMELL-5
HEARING-1
HEARING-2
HEARING-3
VISION-1.1
VISION-1.2
VISION-1.3
VISION-2.1
VISION-2.2
VISION-2.3
VISION-2.4
VISION-3
VISION-4
VISION-5
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

in 1868 by heating sodiosalicylic aldehyde with acetic anhydride, 

though now more cheaply prepared from an herb growing in Florida. 

Irone, which has the perfume of violets, was isolated in 1893 

from a ketone contained in orris-root; and ionone, another ketone 

which has a very closely similar odor of fresh violets and was 

isolated after some years' further work, is largely used in the 

preparation of violet perfume. Irone and ionone are closely 

similar in composition to oil of turpentine which when taken into 

the body is partly converted into perfume and gives a strong odor 

of violets to the urine. "Little has yet been accomplished toward 

ascertaining the relation between the odor and the chemical 

constitution of substances in general. Hydrocarbons as a class 

possess considerable similarity in odor, so also do the organic 

sulphides and, to a much smaller extent, the ketones. The 

subject waits for some one to correlate its various 

physiological, psychological and physical aspects in the same way 

that Helmholtz did for sound. It seems, as yet, impossible to 

assign any probable reason to the fact that many substances have 

a pleasant odor. It may, however, be worth suggesting that 

certain compounds, such as the volatile sulphides and the 

indoles, have very unpleasant odors because they are normal 

constituents of mammalian excreta and of putrefied animal 

products; the repulsive odors may be simply necessary results of 

evolutionary processes." (_Loc. cit._, _Nature_, December 27, 

1900.) 

 

Many of the perfumes in use are really combinations of a great 

many different odors in varying proportions, such as oil of rose, 

lavender oil, ylang-ylang, etc. The most highly appreciated 

perfumes are often made up of elements which in stronger 

proportion would be regarded as highly unpleasant. 

 

In the study and manufacture of perfumes Germany and France have 

taken the lead in recent times. The industry is one of great 

importance. In France alone the trade in perfumes amounts to 

L4,000,000. 

 

It is doubtless largely owing to the essential and fundamental identity of 

odors--to the chemical resemblances even of odors from the most widely 

remote sources--that we find that perfumes in many cases have the same 

sexual effects as are primitively possessed by the body odors. In northern 

countries, where the use of perfumes is chiefly cultivated by women, it is 

by women that this sexual influence is most liable to be felt. In the 

South and in the East it appears to be at least equally often experienced 

by men. Thus, in Italy Mantegazza remarks that "many men of strong sexual 

temperament cannot visit with impunity a laboratory of essences and 

perfumes."[56] In the East we find it stated in the Islamic book entitled 

_The Perfumed Garden of Sheik Nefzaoui_ that the use of perfumes by women, 


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