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Table of contents
PREFACE
TOUCH-1
TOUCH-2
TOUCH-3 (begin)
TOUCH-3 (end)
TOUCH-4 (begin)
TOUCH-4 (end)
SMELL-1
SMELL-2
SMELL-3.1
SMELL-3.2
SMELL-3.3
SMELL-3.4
SMELL-3.5
SMELL-4 (begin)
SMELL-4 (end)
SMELL-5
HEARING-1
HEARING-2
HEARING-3
VISION-1.1
VISION-1.2
VISION-1.3
VISION-2.1
VISION-2.2
VISION-2.3
VISION-2.4
VISION-3
VISION-4
VISION-5
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

innumerable examples of this association, and in the march music of 

soldiers and the heaving and hoisting songs of sailors we have instances 

that have universally persisted into civilization, although in 

civilization the rhythmical stimulation of work, physiologically sound as 

is its basis, tends to die out. Even in the laboratory the influence of 

simple rhythm in increasing the output of work may be demonstrated; and 

Fere found with the ergograph that a rhythmical grouping of the movements 

caused an increase of energy which often more than compensated the loss of 

time caused by the rhythm.[89] 

 

Rhythm is the most primitive element of music, and the most fundamental. 

Wallaschek, in his book on _Primitive Music_, and most other writers on 

the subject are agreed on this point. "Rhythm," remarks an American 

anthropologist,[90] "naturally precedes the development of any fine 

perception of differences in pitch, of time-quality, or of tonality. 

Almost, if not all, Indian songs," he adds, "are as strictly developed out 

of modified repetitions of a motive as are the movements of a Mozart or a 

Beethoven symphony." "In all primitive music," asserts Alice C. 

Fletcher,[91] "rhythm is strongly developed. The pulsations of the drum 

and the sharp crash of the rattles are thrown against each other and 

against the voice, so that it would seem that the pleasure derived by the 

performers lay not so much in the tonality of the song as in the measured 

sounds arrayed in contesting rhythm, and which by their clash start the 

nerves and spur the body to action, for the voice which alone carries the 

tone is often subordinated and treated as an additional instrument." Groos 

points out that a melody gives us the essential impression of a _voice 

that dances_;[92] it is a translation of spatial movement into sound, and, 

as we shall see, its physiological action on the organism is a reflection 

of that which, as we have elsewhere found,[93] dancing itself produces, 

and thus resembles that produced by the sight of movement. Dancing, music, 

and poetry were primitively so closely allied as to be almost identical; 

they were still inseparable among the early Greeks. The refrains in our 

English ballads indicate the dancer's part in them. The technical use of 

the word "foot" in metrical matters still persists to show that a poem is 

fundamentally a dance. 

 

Aristotle seems to have first suggested that rhythm and melodies 

are motions, as actions are motions, and therefore signs of 

feeling. "All melodies are motions," says Helmholtz. "Graceful 

rapidity, gravel procession, quiet advance, wild leaping, all 

these different characters of motion and a thousand others can be 

represented by successions of tones. And as music expresses these 

motions it gives an expression also to those mental conditions 

which naturally evoke similar motions, whether of the body and 

the voice, or of the thinking and feeling principle itself." 


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