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Table of contents
PREFACE
TOUCH-1
TOUCH-2
TOUCH-3 (begin)
TOUCH-3 (end)
TOUCH-4 (begin)
TOUCH-4 (end)
SMELL-1
SMELL-2
SMELL-3.1
SMELL-3.2
SMELL-3.3
SMELL-3.4
SMELL-3.5
SMELL-4 (begin)
SMELL-4 (end)
SMELL-5
HEARING-1
HEARING-2
HEARING-3
VISION-1.1
VISION-1.2
VISION-1.3
VISION-2.1
VISION-2.2
VISION-2.3
VISION-2.4
VISION-3
VISION-4
VISION-5
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

investigated, and both on brief efforts with the dynamometer and prolonged 

work with the ergograph it has been found to exert a stimulating 

influence. Thus, Scripture found that, while his own maximum thumb and 

finger grip with the dynamometer is 8 pounds, when the giant's motive from 

Wagner's _Rheingold_ is played it rises to 83/4 pounds.[95] With the 

ergograph Tarchanoff found that lively music, in nervously sensitive 

persons, will temporarily cause the disappearance of fatigue, though slow 

music in a minor key had an opposite effect.[96] The varying influence on 

work with the ergograph of different musical intervals and different keys 

has been carefully studied by Fere with many interesting results. There 

was a very considerable degree of constancy in the results. Discords were 

depressing; most, but not all, major keys were stimulating; and most, but 

not all, minor keys depressing. In states of fatigue, however, the minor 

keys were more stimulating than the major, an interesting result in 

harmony with that stimulating influence of various painful emotions in 

states of organic fatigue which we have elsewhere encountered when 

investigating sadism.[97] "Our musical culture," Fere remarks, "only 

renders more perceptible to us the unconscious relationships which exist 

between musical art and our organisms. Those whom we consider more endowed 

in this respect have a deeper penetration of the phenomena accomplished 

within them; they feel more profoundly the marvelous reactions between the 

organism and the principles of musical art, they experience more strongly 

that art is within them."[98] Both the higher and the lower muscular 

processes, the voluntary and the involuntary, are stimulated by music. 

Darlington and Talbot, in Titchener's laboratory at Cornell University, 

found that the estimation of relative weights was aided by music.[99] 

Lombard found, when investigating the normal variations in the knee-jerk, 

that involuntary reflex processes are always reinforced by music; a 

military band playing a lively march caused the knee-jerk to increase at 

the loud passages and to diminish at the soft passages, while remaining 

always above the normal level.[100] 

 

With this stimulating influence of rhythm and music on the neuro-muscular 

system--which may or may not be direct--there is a concomitant influence 

on the circulatory and breathing apparatus. During recent years a great 

many experiments have been made on man and animals bearing on the effects 

of music on the heart and respiration. Perhaps the earliest of these were 

carried out by the Russian physiologist Dogiel in 1880.[101] His methods 

were perhaps defective and his results, at all events as regards man, 

uncertain, but in animals the force and rapidity of the heart were 

markedly increased. Subsequent investigations have shown very clearly the 

influence of music on the circulatory and respiratory systems in man as 

well as in animals. That music has an apparently direct influence on the 


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