Main  Contacts  
Table of contents
PREFACE
TOUCH-1
TOUCH-2
TOUCH-3 (begin)
TOUCH-3 (end)
TOUCH-4 (begin)
TOUCH-4 (end)
SMELL-1
SMELL-2
SMELL-3.1
SMELL-3.2
SMELL-3.3
SMELL-3.4
SMELL-3.5
SMELL-4 (begin)
SMELL-4 (end)
SMELL-5
HEARING-1
HEARING-2
HEARING-3
VISION-1.1
VISION-1.2
VISION-1.3
VISION-2.1
VISION-2.2
VISION-2.3
VISION-2.4
VISION-3
VISION-4
VISION-5
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

circulation of the brain is shown by the observations of Patrizi on a 

youth who had received a severe wound of the head which had removed a 

large portion of the skull wall. The stimulus of melody produced an 

immediate increase in the afflux of blood to the brain.[102] 

 

In Germany the question was investigated at about the same time by 

Mentz.[103] Observing the pulse with a sphygmograph and Marey tambour he 

found distinct evidence of an effect on the heart; when attention was 

given to the music the pulse was quickened, in the absence of attention it 

was slowed; Mentz also found that pleasurable sensations tended to slow 

the pulse and disagreeable ones to quicken it. 

 

Binet and Courtier made an elaborate series of experiments on the action 

of music on the respiration (with the double pneumograph), the heart, and 

the capillary circulation (with the plethysmograph of Hallion and Comte) 

on a single subject, a man very sensitive to music and himself a cultured 

musician. Simple musical sounds with no emotional content accelerated the 

respiration without changing its regularity or amplitude. Musical 

fragments, mostly sung, usually well known to the subject, and having an 

emotional effect on him, produced respiratory irregularity either in 

amplitude or rapidity of breathing, in two-thirds of the trials. Exciting 

music, such as military marches, accelerated the breathing more than sad 

melodies, but the intensity of the excitation had an effect at least as 

great as its quality, for intense excitations always produced both 

quickened and deeper breathing. The heart was quickened in harmony with 

the quickened breathing. Neither breathing nor heart was ever slowed. As 

regards the capillary pulsation, an influence was exerted chiefly, if not 

exclusively, by gay and exciting melodies, which produced a shrinking. 

Throughout the experiments it was found that the most profound 

physiological effects were exerted by those pieces which the subject found 

to be most emotional in their influence on him.[104] 

 

Guibaud studied the question on a number of subjects, confirming and 

extending the conclusions of Binet and Courtier. He found that the 

reactions of different individuals varied, but that for the same 

individual reactions were constant. Circulatory reaction was more often 

manifest than respiratory reaction. The latter might be either a 

simultaneous modification of depth and of rapidity or of either of these. 

The circulatory reaction was a peripheral vasoconstriction with diminished 

fullness of pulse and slight acceleration of cardiac rhythm; there was 

never any distinct slowing of heart under the influence of music. Guibaud 

remarks that when people say they feel a shudder at some passage of music, 

this sensation of cold finds its explanation in the production of a 

peripheral vasoconstriction which may be registered by the 

plethysmograph.[105] 

 

 

 

 

 


Page 6 from 6:  Back   1   2   3   4   5  [6]