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Table of contents
PREFACE
TOUCH-1
TOUCH-2
TOUCH-3 (begin)
TOUCH-3 (end)
TOUCH-4 (begin)
TOUCH-4 (end)
SMELL-1
SMELL-2
SMELL-3.1
SMELL-3.2
SMELL-3.3
SMELL-3.4
SMELL-3.5
SMELL-4 (begin)
SMELL-4 (end)
SMELL-5
HEARING-1
HEARING-2
HEARING-3
VISION-1.1
VISION-1.2
VISION-1.3
VISION-2.1
VISION-2.2
VISION-2.3
VISION-2.4
VISION-3
VISION-4
VISION-5
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

Since music thus directly and powerfully affects the chief vital 

processes, it is not surprising that it should indirectly influence 

various viscera and functions. As Tarchanoff and others have demonstrated, 

it affects the skin, increasing the perspiration; it may produce a 

tendency to tears; it sometimes produces desire to urinate, or even actual 

urination, as in Scaliger's case of the Gascon gentleman who was always 

thus affected on hearing the bagpipes. In dogs it has been shown by 

Tarchanoff and Wartanoff that auditory stimulation increases the 

consumption of oxygen 20 per cent., and the elimination of carbonic acid 

17 per cent. 

 

In addition to the effects of musical sound already mentioned, it may be 

added that, as Epstein, of Berne, has shown,[106] the other senses are 

stimulated under the influence of sound, and notably there is an increase 

in acuteness of vision which may be experimentally demonstrated. It is 

probable that this effect of music in heightening the impressions received 

by the other senses is of considerable significance from our present point 

of view. 

 

Why are musical tones in a certain order and rhythm pleasurable? asked 

Darwin in _The Descent of Man_, and he concluded that the question was 

insoluble. We see that, in reality, whatever the ultimate answer may be, 

the immediate reason is quite simple. Pleasure is a condition of slight 

and diffused stimulation, in which the heart and breathing are faintly 

excited, the neuro-muscular system receives additional tone, the viscera 

gently stirred, the skin activity increased; and certain combinations of 

musical notes and intervals act as a physiological stimulus in producing 

these effects.[107] 

 

Among animals of all kinds, from insects upward, this physiological action 

appears to exist, for among nearly all of them certain sounds are 

agreeable and attractive, and other sounds indifferent and disagreeable. 

It appears that insects of quite different genera show much appreciation 

of the song of the Cicada.[108] Birds show intense interest in the singing 

of good performers even of other species. Experiments among a variety of 

animals in the Zooelogical Gardens with performances on various instruments 

showed that with the exception of seals none were indifferent, and all 

felt a discord as offensive. Many animals showed marked likes and 

dislikes; thus, a tiger, who was obviously soothed by the violin, was 

infuriated by the piccolo; the violin and the flute were preferred by most 

animals.[109] 

 

Most persons have probably had occasion to observe the 

susceptibility of dogs to music. It may here suffice to give one 

personal observation. A dog (of mixed breed, partly collie), very 

well known to me, on hearing a nocturne of Chopin, whined and 

howled, especially at the more pathetic passages, once or twice 

catching and drawing out the actual note played; he panted, 

walked about anxiously, and now and then placed his head on the 


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