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Table of contents
PREFACE
TOUCH-1
TOUCH-2
TOUCH-3 (begin)
TOUCH-3 (end)
TOUCH-4 (begin)
TOUCH-4 (end)
SMELL-1
SMELL-2
SMELL-3.1
SMELL-3.2
SMELL-3.3
SMELL-3.4
SMELL-3.5
SMELL-4 (begin)
SMELL-4 (end)
SMELL-5
HEARING-1
HEARING-2
HEARING-3
VISION-1.1
VISION-1.2
VISION-1.3
VISION-2.1
VISION-2.2
VISION-2.3
VISION-2.4
VISION-3
VISION-4
VISION-5
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

player's lap. When the player proceeded to a more cheerful piece 

by Grieg, the dog at once became indifferent, sat down, yawned, 

and scratched himself; but as soon as the player returned once 

more to the nocturne the dog at once repeated his accompaniment. 

 

 

There can be no doubt that among a very large number of animals of most 

various classes, more especially among insects and birds, the attraction 

of music is supported and developed on the basis of sexual attraction, the 

musical notes emitted serving as a sexual lure to the other sex. The 

evidence on this point was carefully investigated by Darwin on a very wide 

basis.[110] It has been questioned, some writers preferring to adopt the 

view of Herbert Spencer,[111] that the singing of birds is due to 

"overflow of energy," the relation between courtship and singing being 

merely "a relation of concomitance." This view is no longer tenable; 

whatever the precise origin of the musical notes of animals may be,--and 

it is not necessary to suppose that sexual attraction had a large part in 

their first rudimentary beginnings,--there can now be little doubt that 

musical sounds, and, among birds, singing, play a very large part indeed 

in bringing the male and the female together.[112] Usually, it would 

appear, it is the performance of the male that attracts the female; it is 

only among very simple and primitive musicians, like some insects, that 

the female thus attracts the male.[113] The fact that it is nearly always 

one sex only that is thus musically gifted should alone have sufficed to 

throw suspicion on any but a sexual solution of this problem of animal 

song. 

 

It is, however, an exceedingly remarkable fact that, although among 

insects and lower vertebrates the sexual influence of music is so large, 

and although among mammals and predominantly in man the emotional and 

aesthetic influence of music is so great, yet neither in man nor any of the 

higher mammals has music been found to exert a predominant sexual 

influence, or even in most cases any influence at all. Darwin, while 

calling attention to the fact that the males of most species of mammals 

use their vocal powers chiefly, and sometimes exclusively, during the 

breeding-season, adds that "it is a surprising fact that we have not as 

yet any good evidence that these organs are used by male mammals to charm 

the female."[114] From a very different standpoint, Fere, in studying the 

pathology of the human sexual instinct in the light of a very full 

knowledge of the available evidence, states that he knows of no detailed 

observations showing the existence of any morbid sexual perversions based 

on the sense of hearing, either in reference to the human voice or to 

instrumental music.[115] 

 

When, however, we consider that not only in the animals most nearly 

related to man, but in man himself, the larynx and the voice undergo a 

marked sexual differentiation at puberty, it is difficult not to believe 


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