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Table of contents
PREFACE
TOUCH-1
TOUCH-2
TOUCH-3 (begin)
TOUCH-3 (end)
TOUCH-4 (begin)
TOUCH-4 (end)
SMELL-1
SMELL-2
SMELL-3.1
SMELL-3.2
SMELL-3.3
SMELL-3.4
SMELL-3.5
SMELL-4 (begin)
SMELL-4 (end)
SMELL-5
HEARING-1
HEARING-2
HEARING-3
VISION-1.1
VISION-1.2
VISION-1.3
VISION-2.1
VISION-2.2
VISION-2.3
VISION-2.4
VISION-3
VISION-4
VISION-5
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

that this change has an influence on sexual selection and sexual 

psychology. At puberty there is a slight hyperaemia of the larynx, 

accompanied by rapid development alike of the larynx itself and of the 

vocal cords, which become larger and thicker, while there is an associated 

change in the voice, which deepens. All these changes are very slight in 

girls, but very pronounced in boys, whose voices are said to "break" and 

then become lower by at least an octave. The feminine larynx at puberty 

only increases in the proportion of 5 to 7, but the masculine larynx in 

the proportion of 5 to 10. The direct dependence of this change on the 

general sexual development is shown not merely by its occurrence at 

puberty, but by the fact that in eunuchs in whom the testicles have been 

removed before puberty the voice retains its childlike qualities.[116] 

 

As a matter of fact, I believe that we may attach a considerable degree of 

importance to the voice and to music generally as a method of sexual 

appeal. On this point I agree with Moll, who remarks that "the sense of 

hearing here plays a considerable part, and the stimulation received 

through the ears is much larger than is usually believed."[117] I am not, 

however, inclined to think that this influence is considerable in its 

action on men, although Mantegazza remarks, doubtless with a certain 

truth, that "some women's voices cannot be heard with impunity." It is 

true that the ancients deprecated the sexual or at all events the 

effeminating influence of some kinds of music, but they seem to have 

regarded it as sedative rather than stimulating; the kind of music they 

approved of as martial and stimulating was the kind most likely to have 

sexual effects in predisposed persons. 

 

The Chinese and the Greeks have more especially insisted on the 

ethical qualities of music and on its moralizing and demoralizing 

effects. Some three thousand years ago, it is stated, a Chinese 

emperor, believing that only they who understood music are 

capable of governing, distributed administrative functions in 

accordance with this belief. He acted entirely in accordance with 

Chinese morality, the texts of Confucianism (see translations in 

the "Sacred Books of the East Series") show clearly that music 

and ceremony (or social ritual in a wide sense) are regarded as 

the two main guiding influences of life--music as the internal 

guide, ceremony as the external guide, the former being looked 

upon as the more important. 

 

Among the Greeks Menander said that to many people music is a 

powerful stimulant to love. Plato, in the third book of the 

_Republic_, discusses what kinds of music should be encouraged in 

his ideal state. He does not clearly state that music is ever a 

sexual stimulant, but he appears to associate plaintive music 

(mixed Lydian and Hypolydian) with drunkenness, effeminacy, and 

idleness and considers that such music is "useless even to women 


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