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Table of contents
PREFACE
TOUCH-1
TOUCH-2
TOUCH-3 (begin)
TOUCH-3 (end)
TOUCH-4 (begin)
TOUCH-4 (end)
SMELL-1
SMELL-2
SMELL-3.1
SMELL-3.2
SMELL-3.3
SMELL-3.4
SMELL-3.5
SMELL-4 (begin)
SMELL-4 (end)
SMELL-5
HEARING-1
HEARING-2
HEARING-3
VISION-1.1
VISION-1.2
VISION-1.3
VISION-2.1
VISION-2.2
VISION-2.3
VISION-2.4
VISION-3
VISION-4
VISION-5
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

that are to be virtuously given, not to say to men." He only 

admits two kinds of music: one violent and suited to war, the 

other tranquil and suited to prayer or to persuasion. He sets out 

the ethical qualities of music with a thoroughness which almost 

approaches the great Chinese philosopher: "On these accounts we 

attach such importance to a musical education, because rhythm and 

harmony sink most deeply into the recesses of the soul, and take 

most powerful hold of it, bringing gracefulness in their train, 

and making a man graceful if he be rightly nurtured, ... leading 

him to commend beautiful objects, and gladly receive them into 

his soul, and feed upon them, and grow to be noble and good." 

Plato is, however, by no means so consistent and thorough as the 

Chinese moralist, for having thus asserted that it is the 

influence of music which molds the soul into virtue, he proceeds 

to destroy his position with the statement that "we shall never 

become truly musical until we know the essential forms of 

temperance and courage and liberality and munificence," thus 

moving in a circle. It must be added that the Greek conception of 

music was very comprehensive and included poetry. 

 

Aristotle took a wider view of music than Plato and admitted a 

greater variety of uses for it. He was less anxious to exclude 

those uses which were not strictly ethical. He disapproved, 

indeed, of the Phrygian harmony as the expression of Bacchic 

excitement. He accepts, however, the function of music as a 

katharsis of emotion, a notion which is said to have originated 

with the Pythagoreans. (For a discussion of Aristotle's views on 

music, see W.L. Newman, _The Politics of Aristotle_, vol. i, pp. 

359-369.) 

 

Athenaeus, in his frequent allusions to music, attributes to it 

many intellectual and emotional properties (e.g., Book XIV, 

Chapter XXV) and in one place refers to "melodies inciting to 

lawless indulgence" (Book XIII, Chapter LXXV). 

 

We may gather from the _Priapeia_ (XXVI) that cymbals and 

castanets were the special accompaniment in antiquity of wanton 

songs and dances: "_cymbala, cum crotalis, pruriginis arma_." 

 

The ancient belief in the moralizing influence of music has 

survived into modern times mainly in a somewhat more scientific 

form as a belief in its therapeutic effects in disordered nervous 

and mental conditions. (This also is an ancient belief as 

witnessed by the well-known example of David playing to Saul to 

dispel his melancholia.) In 1729 an apothecary of Oakham, Richard 

Broune, published a work entitled _Medicina Musica_, in which he 

argued that music was beneficial in many maladies. In more recent 

days there have been various experiments and cases brought 

forward showing its efficacy in special conditions. 


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