Main  Contacts  
Table of contents
PREFACE
TOUCH-1
TOUCH-2
TOUCH-3 (begin)
TOUCH-3 (end)
TOUCH-4 (begin)
TOUCH-4 (end)
SMELL-1
SMELL-2
SMELL-3.1
SMELL-3.2
SMELL-3.3
SMELL-3.4
SMELL-3.5
SMELL-4 (begin)
SMELL-4 (end)
SMELL-5
HEARING-1
HEARING-2
HEARING-3
VISION-1.1
VISION-1.2
VISION-1.3
VISION-2.1
VISION-2.2
VISION-2.3
VISION-2.4
VISION-3
VISION-4
VISION-5
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

it must doubtless act as a sexual allurement. "Allah has specially created 

an angel in Heaven," it is said in the _Arabian Nights_, "who has no other 

occupation than to sing the praises of the Creator for giving a beard to 

men and long hair to women." The sexual character of the beard and the 

other hirsute appendage is significantly indicated by the fact that the 

ascetic spirit in Christianity has always sought to minimize or to hide 

the hair. Altogether apart, however, from this religious influence, 

civilization tends to be opposed to the growth of hair on the masculine 

face and especially to the beard. It is part of the well-marked tendency 

with civilization to the abolition of sexual differences. We find this 

general tendency among the Greeks and Romans, and, on the whole, with 

certain variations and fluctuations of fashion, in modern Europe also. 

Schopenhauer frequently referred to this disappearance of the beard as a 

mark of civilization, "a barometer of culture."[151] The absence of facial 

hair heightens aesthetic beauty of form, and is not felt to remove any 

substantial sexual attraction. 

 

That even the Egyptians regarded the beard as a mark of beauty 

and an object of veneration is shown by the fact that the priests 

wore it long and cut it off in grief (Herodotus, _Euterpe_, 

Chapter XXXVI). The respect with which the beard was regarded 

among the ancient Hebrews is indicated in the narrative (II 

Samuel, Chapter X) which tells how, when David sent his servants 

to King Hanun the latter shaved off half their beards; they were 

too ashamed to return in this condition, and remained at Jericho 

until their beards had grown again. A passage in Ordericus 

Vitalis (_Ecclesiastical History_, Book VIII, Chapter X) is 

interesting both as regards the fashions of the twelfth century 

in England and Normandy and the feeling that prompted Ordericus. 

Speaking of the men of his time, he wrote: "The forepart of 

their head is bare after the manner of thieves, while at the back 

they nourish long hair like harlots. In former times penitents, 

captives and pilgrims usually went unshaved and wore long beards, 

as an outward mark of their penance or captivity or pilgrimage. 

Now almost all the world wear crisped hair and beards, carrying 

on their faces the token of their filthy lust like stinking 

goats. Their locks are curled with hot irons, and instead of 

wearing caps they bind their heads with fillets. A knight seldom 

appears in public with his head uncovered, and properly shaved, 

according to the apostolic precept (I Corinthians, Chapter XI, 

verses 7 and 14)." 

 

We have seen that there is good reason for assuming a certain fundamental 

tendency whereby the most various peoples of the world, at all events in 

the person of their most intelligent members, recognize and accept a 

common ideal of feminine beauty, so that to a certain extent beauty may be 


Page 3 from 7:  Back   1   2  [3]  4   5   6   7   Forward