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Table of contents
PREFACE
TOUCH-1
TOUCH-2
TOUCH-3 (begin)
TOUCH-3 (end)
TOUCH-4 (begin)
TOUCH-4 (end)
SMELL-1
SMELL-2
SMELL-3.1
SMELL-3.2
SMELL-3.3
SMELL-3.4
SMELL-3.5
SMELL-4 (begin)
SMELL-4 (end)
SMELL-5
HEARING-1
HEARING-2
HEARING-3
VISION-1.1
VISION-1.2
VISION-1.3
VISION-2.1
VISION-2.2
VISION-2.3
VISION-2.4
VISION-3
VISION-4
VISION-5
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

population, but in portions of the centre and especially in the south it 

may be considered a question. It must, however, be remembered that the 

white population occupying all the shores of the Mediterranean have the 

black peoples of Africa immediately to the south of them. They have been 

liable to come in contact with the black peoples and in contrast with them 

they have tended not only to be more impressed with their own whiteness, 

but to appraise still more highly its blondest manifestations as 

representing a type the farthest removed from the negro. It must be added 

that the northerner who comes into the south is apt to overestimate the 

darkness of the southerner because of the extreme fairness of his own 

people. The differences are, however, less extreme than we are apt to 

suppose; there are more dark people in the north than we commonly assume, 

and more fair people in the south. Thus, if we take Italy, we find in its 

fairest part, Venetia, according to Raseri, that there are 8 per cent. 

communes in which fair hair predominates, 81 per cent. in which brown 

predominates, and only 11 per cent. in which black predominates; as we go 

farther south black hair becomes more prevalent, but there are in most 

provinces a few communes in which fair hair is not only frequent, but even 

predominant. It is somewhat the same with light eyes, which are also most 

abundant in Venetia and decrease to a slighter extent as we go south. It 

is possible that in former days the blondes prevailed to a greater degree 

than to-day in the south of Europe. Among the Berbers of the Atlas 

Mountains, who are probably allied to the South Europeans, there appears 

to be a fairly considerable proportion of blondes,[155] while on the other 

hand there is some reason to believe that blondes die out under the 

influence of civilization as well as of a hot climate. 

 

However this may be, the European admiration for blondes dates back to 

early classic times. Gods and men in Homer would appear to be frequently 

described as fair.[156] Venus is nearly always blonde, as was Milton's 

Eve. Lucian refers to women who dye their hair. The Greek sculptors gilded 

the hair of their statues, and the figurines in many cases show very fair 

hair.[157] The Roman custom of dyeing the hair light, as Renier has shown, 

was not due to the desire to be like the fair Germans, and when Rome fell 

it would appear that the custom of dyeing the hair persisted, and never 

died out; it is mentioned by Anselm, who died at the beginning of the 

twelfth century.[158] 

 

In the poetry of the people in Italy brunettes, as we should expect, 

receive much commendation, though even here the blondes are preferred. 

When we turn to the painters and poets of Italy, and the aesthetic writers 

on beauty from the Renaissance onward, the admiration for fair hair is 

unqualified, though there is no correspondingly unanimous admiration for 

blue eyes. Angelico and most of the pre-Raphaelite artists usually painted 


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