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Table of contents
PREFACE
TOUCH-1
TOUCH-2
TOUCH-3 (begin)
TOUCH-3 (end)
TOUCH-4 (begin)
TOUCH-4 (end)
SMELL-1
SMELL-2
SMELL-3.1
SMELL-3.2
SMELL-3.3
SMELL-3.4
SMELL-3.5
SMELL-4 (begin)
SMELL-4 (end)
SMELL-5
HEARING-1
HEARING-2
HEARING-3
VISION-1.1
VISION-1.2
VISION-1.3
VISION-2.1
VISION-2.2
VISION-2.3
VISION-2.4
VISION-3
VISION-4
VISION-5
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

 

APPENDICES 

 

 

APPENDIX A. 

 

THE ORIGINS OF THE KISS. 

 

 

Manifestations resembling the kiss, whether with the object of expressing 

affection or sexual emotion, are found among various animals much lower 

than man. The caressing of the antennae practiced by snails and various 

insects during sexual intercourse is of the nature of a kiss. Birds use 

their bills for a kind of caress. Thus, referring to guillemots and their 

practice of nibbling each other's feet, and the interest the mate always 

takes in this proceeding, which probably relieves irritation caused by 

insects, Edmund Selous remarks: "When they nibble and preen each other 

they may, I think, be rightly said to cosset and caress, the expression 

and pose of the bird receiving the benefit being often beatific."[196] 

Among mammals, such as the dog, we have what closely resembles a kiss, and 

the dog who smells, licks, and gently bites his master or a bitch, 

combines most of the sensory activities involved in the various forms of 

the human kiss. 

 

As practiced by man, the kiss involves mainly either the sense of touch or 

that of smell. Occasionally it involves to some extent both sensory 

elements.[197] 

 

The tactile kiss is certainly very ancient and primitive. It is common 

among mammals generally. The human infant exhibits, in a very marked 

degree, the impulse to carry everything to the mouth and to lick or 

attempt to taste it, possibly, as Compayre suggests,[198] from a memory of 

the action of the lips protruded to seize the maternal nipple. The 

affectionate child, as Mantegazza remarks,[199] not only applies inanimate 

objects to its lips or tongue, but of its own impulse licks the people it 

likes. Stanley Hall, in the light of a large amount of information he 

obtained on this point, found that "some children insist on licking the 

cheeks, necks, and hands of those they wish to caress," or like having 

animals lick them.[200] This impulse in children may be associated with 

the maternal impulse in animals to lick the young. "The method of licking 

the young practiced by the mother," remarks S.S. Buckman, "would cause 

licking to be associated with happy feelings. And, further, there is the 

allaying of parasitical irritation which is afforded by the rubbing and 

hence results in pleasure. It may even be suggested that the desire of the 

mother to lick her young was prompted in the first place by a desire to 

bestow on her offspring a pleasure she felt herself." The licking impulse 

in the child may thus, it is possible, be regarded as the evanescent 

manifestation of a more fundamental animal impulse,[201] a manifestation 

which is liable to appear in adult life under the stress of strong sexual 

emotion. Such an association is of interest if, as there is some reason to 

believe, the kiss of sexual love originated as a development of the more 

primitive kiss bestowed by the mother on her child, for it is sometimes 

found that the maternal kiss is practiced where the sexual kiss is 


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