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Table of contents
PREFACE
TOUCH-1
TOUCH-2
TOUCH-3 (begin)
TOUCH-3 (end)
TOUCH-4 (begin)
TOUCH-4 (end)
SMELL-1
SMELL-2
SMELL-3.1
SMELL-3.2
SMELL-3.3
SMELL-3.4
SMELL-3.5
SMELL-4 (begin)
SMELL-4 (end)
SMELL-5
HEARING-1
HEARING-2
HEARING-3
VISION-1.1
VISION-1.2
VISION-1.3
VISION-2.1
VISION-2.2
VISION-2.3
VISION-2.4
VISION-3
VISION-4
VISION-5
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

 

While, however, the communications from the sexual organs to the breast 

are of a complex and at present ill understood character, the 

communication from the breasts to the sexual organs is without doubt 

mainly and chiefly nervous. When the child is put to the breast after 

birth the suction of the nipple causes a reflex contraction of the womb, 

and it is held by many, though not all, authorities that in a woman who 

does not suckle her child there is some risk that the womb will not return 

to its normal involuted size. It has also been asserted that to put a 

child to the breast during the early months of pregnancy causes so great a 

degree of uterine contraction that abortion may result. 

 

Freund found in Germany that stimulation of the nipples by an 

electrical cupping apparatus brought about contraction of the 

pregnant uterus. At an earlier period it was recommended to 

irritate the nipple in order to excite the uterus to parturient 

action. Simpson, while pointing out that this was scarcely 

adequate to produce the effect desired, thought that placing a 

child to the breast after labor had begun might increase uterine 

action. (J.Y. Simpson, _Obstetric Memoirs_, vol. i, p. 836; also 

Fere, _L'Instinct Sexuel_, second edition, p. 132). 

 

The influence of lactation over the womb in preventing the return 

of menstruation during its continuance is well known. According 

to Remfry's investigation of 900 cases in England, in 57 per 

cent. of cases there is no menstruation during lactation. (L. 

Remfry, in paper read before Obstetrical Society of London, 

summarized in the _British Medical Journal_, January 11, 1896, p. 

86). Bendix, in Germany, found among 140 cases that in about 40 

per cent. there was no menstruation during lactation (paper read 

before Duesseldorf meeting of the Society of German Naturalists 

and Physicians, 1899). When the child is not suckled menstruation 

tends to reappear about six months after parturition. 

 

It is possible that the divergent opinions of authorities 

concerning the necessarily favorable influence of lactation in 

promoting the return of the womb to its normal size may be due to 

a confusion of two distinct influences: the reflex action of the 

nipple on the womb and the effects of prolonged glandular 

secretion of the breasts in debilitated persons. The act of 

suckling undoubtedly tends to promote uterine contraction, and in 

healthy women during lactation the womb may even (according to 

Vineberg) be temporarily reduced to a smaller size than before 

impregnation, thus producing what is known as "lactation 

atrophy." In debilitated women, however, the strain of 

milk-production may lead to general lack of muscular tone, and 

involution of the womb thus be hindered rather than aided by 

lactation. 

 

On the objective side, then, the nipple is to be regarded as an erectile 


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