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Table of contents
PREFACE
TOUCH-1
TOUCH-2
TOUCH-3 (begin)
TOUCH-3 (end)
TOUCH-4 (begin)
TOUCH-4 (end)
SMELL-1
SMELL-2
SMELL-3.1
SMELL-3.2
SMELL-3.3
SMELL-3.4
SMELL-3.5
SMELL-4 (begin)
SMELL-4 (end)
SMELL-5
HEARING-1
HEARING-2
HEARING-3
VISION-1.1
VISION-1.2
VISION-1.3
VISION-2.1
VISION-2.2
VISION-2.3
VISION-2.4
VISION-3
VISION-4
VISION-5
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

 

Yet it is worth while to point out, as bearing on the 

associations of the bath here emphasized, that even in Islam we 

may trace the existence of a religious attitude unfavorable to 

the bath. Before the time of Mohammed there were no public baths 

in Arabia, and it was and is believed that baths are specially 

haunted by the djinn--the evil spirits. Mohammed himself was at 

first so prejudiced against public baths that he forbade both men 

and women to enter them. Afterward, however, he permitted men to 

use them provided they wore a cloth round the loins, and women 

also when they could not conveniently bathe at home. Among the 

Prophet's sayings is found the assertion: "Whatever woman enters 

a bath the devil is with her," and "All the earth is given to me 

as a place of prayer, and as pure, except the burial ground and 

the bath." (See, e.g., E.W. Lane, _Arabian Society in the Middle 

Ages_, 1883, pp. 179-183.) Although, therefore, the bath, or 

_hammam_, on grounds of ritual ablution, hygiene, and enjoyment 

speedily became universally popular in Islam among all classes 

and both sexes, Mohammed himself may be said to have opposed it. 

 

Among the discoveries which the Crusaders made and brought home with them 

one of the most notable was that of the bath, which in its more elaborate 

forms seems to have been absolutely forgotten in Europe, though Roman 

baths might everywhere have been found underground. All authorities seem 

to be agreed in finding here the origin of the revival of the public bath. 

It is to Rome first, and later to Islam, the lineal inheritor of classic 

culture, that we owe the cult of water and of physical purity. Even to-day 

the Turkish bath, which is the most popular of elaborate methods of 

bathing, recalls by its characteristics and its name the fact that it is a 

Mohammedan survival of Roman life. 

 

From the twelfth century onward baths have repeatedly been introduced from 

the East, and reintroduced afresh in slightly modified forms, and have 

flourished with varying degrees of success. In the thirteenth century they 

were very common, especially in Paris, and though they were often used, 

more especially in Germany, by both sexes in common, every effort was made 

to keep them orderly and respectable. These efforts were, however, always 

unsuccessful in the end. A bath always tended in the end to become a 

brothel, and hence either became unfashionable or was suppressed by the 

authorities. It is sufficient to refer to the reputation in England of 

"hot-houses" and "bagnios." It was not until toward the end of the 

eighteenth century that it began to be recognized that the claims of 

physical cleanliness were sufficiently imperative to make it necessary 

that the fairly avoidable risks to morality in bathing should be avoided 

and the unavoidable risks bravely incurred. At the present day, now that 

we are accustomed to weave ingeniously together in the texture of our 


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