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Table of contents
PREFACE
TOUCH-1
TOUCH-2
TOUCH-3 (begin)
TOUCH-3 (end)
TOUCH-4 (begin)
TOUCH-4 (end)
SMELL-1
SMELL-2
SMELL-3.1
SMELL-3.2
SMELL-3.3
SMELL-3.4
SMELL-3.5
SMELL-4 (begin)
SMELL-4 (end)
SMELL-5
HEARING-1
HEARING-2
HEARING-3
VISION-1.1
VISION-1.2
VISION-1.3
VISION-2.1
VISION-2.2
VISION-2.3
VISION-2.4
VISION-3
VISION-4
VISION-5
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

lives the conflicting traditions of classic and Christian days, we have 

almost persuaded ourselves that the pagan virtue of cleanliness comes next 

after godliness, and we bathe, forgetful of the great moral struggle which 

once went on around the bath. But we refrain from building ourselves 

palaces to bathe in, and for the most part we bathe with exceeding 

moderation.[23] It is probable that we may best harmonize our conflicting 

traditions by rejecting not only the Christian glorification of dirt, but 

also, save for definitely therapeutic purposes, the excessive heat, 

friction, and stimulation involved by the classic forms of bathing. Our 

reasonable ideal should render it easy and natural for every man, woman, 

and child to have a simple bath, tepid in winter, cold in summer, all the 

year round. 

 

For the history of the bath in mediaeval times and later Europe, 

see A. Franklin, _Les Soins de Toilette_, in the _Vie Privee 

d'Autrefois_ series; Rudeck, _Geschichte der oeffentlichen 

Sittlichkeit in Deutschland_; T. Wright, _The Homes of Other 

Days_; E. Duehren, _Das Geschlechtsleben in England_, bd. 1. 

 

Outside the Church, there was a greater amount of cleanliness 

than we are sometimes apt to suppose. It may, indeed, be said 

that the uncleanliness of holy men and women would have attracted 

no attention if it had corresponded to the condition generally 

prevailing. Before public baths were established bathing in 

private was certainly practiced; thus Ordericus Vitalis, in 

narrating the murder of Mabel, the Countess de Montgomery, in 

Normandy in 1082, casually mentions that she was lying on the bed 

after her bath (_Ecclesiastical History_, Book V, Chapter XIII). 

In warm weather, it would appear, mediaeval ladies bathed in 

streams, as we may still see countrywomen do in Russia, Bohemia, 

and occasionally nearer home. The statement of the historian 

Michelet, therefore, that Percival, Iseult, and the other 

ethereal personages of mediaeval times "certainly never washed" 

(_La Sorciere_, p. 110) requires some qualification. 

 

In 1292 there were twenty-six bathing establishments in Paris, 

and an attendant would go through the streets in the morning 

announcing that they were ready. One could have a vapor bath only 

or a hot bath to succeed it, as in the East. No woman of bad 

reputation, leper, or vagabond was at this time allowed to 

frequent the baths, which were closed on Sundays and feast-days. 

By the fourteenth century, however, the baths began to have a 

reputation for immorality, as well as luxury, and, according to 

Dufour, the baths of Paris "rivaled those of imperial Rome: love, 

prostitution, and debauchery attracted the majority to the 

bathing establishments, where everything was covered by a decent 

veil." He adds that, notwithstanding the scandal thus caused and 


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