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Table of contents
PREFACE
TOUCH-1
TOUCH-2
TOUCH-3 (begin)
TOUCH-3 (end)
TOUCH-4 (begin)
TOUCH-4 (end)
SMELL-1
SMELL-2
SMELL-3.1
SMELL-3.2
SMELL-3.3
SMELL-3.4
SMELL-3.5
SMELL-4 (begin)
SMELL-4 (end)
SMELL-5
HEARING-1
HEARING-2
HEARING-3
VISION-1.1
VISION-1.2
VISION-1.3
VISION-2.1
VISION-2.2
VISION-2.3
VISION-2.4
VISION-3
VISION-4
VISION-5
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

astonishing rapidity. Edinger finds that in the brain of reptiles the 

"area olfactoria" is of enormous extent, covering, indeed, the greater 

part of the cortex, though it may be quite true, as Herrick remarks, that, 

while smell is preponderant, it is perhaps not correct to attribute an 

exclusively olfactory tone to the cerebral activities of the _Sauropsida_ 

or even the _Ichthyopsida_. Among most mammals, however, in any case, 

smell is certainly the most highly developed of the senses; it gives the 

first information of remote objects that concern them; it gives the most 

precise information concerning the near objects that concern them; it is 

the sense in terms of which most of their mental operations must be 

conducted and their emotional impulses reach consciousness. Among the apes 

it has greatly lost importance and in man it has become almost 

rudimentary, giving place to the supremacy of vision. 

 

Prof. G. Elliot Smith, a leading authority on the brain, has well 

summarized the facts concerning the predominance of the olfactory 

region in the mammal brain, and his conclusions may be quoted. It 

should be premised that Elliot Smith divides the brain into 

rhinencephalon and neopallium. Rhinencephalon designates the 

regions which are pre-eminently olfactory in function: the 

olfactory bulb, its peduncle, the tuberculum olfactorium and 

locus perforatus, the pyriform lobe, the paraterminal body, and 

the whole hippocampal formation. The neopallium is the dorsal cap 

of the brain, with frontal, parietal, and occipital areas, 

comprehending all that part of the brain which is the seat of the 

higher associative activities, reaching its fullest development 

in man. 

 

"In the early mammals the olfactory areas form by far the greater 

part of the cerebral hemisphere, which is not surprising when it 

is recalled that the forebrain is, in the primitive brain, 

essentially an appendage, so to speak, of the smell apparatus. 

When the cerebral hemisphere comes to occupy such a dominant 

position in the brain it is perhaps not unnatural to find that 

the sense of smell is the most influential and the chief source 

of information to the animal; or, perhaps, it would be more 

accurate to say that the olfactory sense, which conveys general 

information to the animal such as no other sense can bring 

concerning its prey (whether near or far, hidden or exposed), is 

much the most serviceable of all the avenues of information to 

the lowly mammal leading a terrestrial life, and therefore 

becomes predominant; and its particular domain--the 

forebrain--becomes the ruling portion of the nervous system. 

 

"This early predominance of the sense of smell persists in most 

mammals (unless an aquatic mode of life interferes and deposes 

it: compare the _Cetacea, Sirenia_, and _Pinnipedia_, for 

example) even though a large neopallium develops to receive 


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