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Table of contents
PREFACE
TOUCH-1
TOUCH-2
TOUCH-3 (begin)
TOUCH-3 (end)
TOUCH-4 (begin)
TOUCH-4 (end)
SMELL-1
SMELL-2
SMELL-3.1
SMELL-3.2
SMELL-3.3
SMELL-3.4
SMELL-3.5
SMELL-4 (begin)
SMELL-4 (end)
SMELL-5
HEARING-1
HEARING-2
HEARING-3
VISION-1.1
VISION-1.2
VISION-1.3
VISION-2.1
VISION-2.2
VISION-2.3
VISION-2.4
VISION-3
VISION-4
VISION-5
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

visual, auditory, tactile, and other impressions pouring into the 

forebrain. In the _Anthropoidea_ alone of nonaquatic mammals the 

olfactory regions undergo an absolute (and not only relative, as 

in the _Carnivora_ and _Ungulata_) dwindling, which is equally 

shared by the human brain, in common with those of the other 

_Simiidae_, the _Cercopithecidae_, and the _Cebidae_. But all the 

parts of the rhinencephalon, which are so distinct in macrosmatic 

mammals, can also be recognized in the human brain. The small 

ellipsoidal olfactory bulb is moored, so to speak, on the 

cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone by the olfactory nerves; so 

that, as the place of attachment of the olfactory peduncle to the 

expanding cerebral hemisphere becomes removed (as a result of the 

forward extension of the hemisphere) progressively farther and 

farther backward, the peduncle becomes greatly stretched and 

elongated. And, as this stretching involves the gray matter 

without lessening the number of nerve-fibres in the olfactory 

tract, the peduncle becomes practically what it is usually 

called--i.e., the olfactory 'tract.' The tuberculum olfactorium 

becomes greatly reduced and at the same time flattened; so that 

it is not easy to draw a line of demarcation between it and the 

anterior perforated space. The anterior rhinal fissure, which is 

present in the early human foetus, vanishes (almost, if not 

altogether) in the adult. Part of the posterior rhinal fissure is 

always present in the 'incisura temporalis,' and sometimes, 

especially in some of the non-European races, the whole of the 

posterior rhinal fissure is retained in that typical form which 

we find in the anthropoid apes." (G. Elliot Smith, in 

_Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue of the Physiological 

Series of Comparative Anatomy Contained in the Museum of the 

Royal College of Surgeons of England_, second edition, vol. ii.) 

A full statement of Elliot Smith's investigations, with diagrams, 

is given by Bullen, _Journal of Mental Science_, July, 1899. It 

may be added that the whole subject of the olfactory centres has 

been thoroughly studied by Elliot Smith, as well as by Edinger, 

Mayer, and C.L. Herrick. In the _Journal of Comparative 

Neurology_, edited by the last named, numerous discussions and 

summaries bearing on the subject will be found from 1896 onward. 

Regarding the primitive sense-organs of smell in the various 

invertebrate groups some information will be found in A.B. 

Griffiths's _Physiology of the Invertebrata_, Chapter XI. 

 

The predominance of the olfactory area in the nervous system of the 

vertebrates generally has inevitably involved intimate psychic 

associations between olfactory stimuli and the sexual impulse. For most 

mammals not only are all sexual associations mainly olfactory, but the 


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