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Table of contents
PREFACE
TOUCH-1
TOUCH-2
TOUCH-3 (begin)
TOUCH-3 (end)
TOUCH-4 (begin)
TOUCH-4 (end)
SMELL-1
SMELL-2
SMELL-3.1
SMELL-3.2
SMELL-3.3
SMELL-3.4
SMELL-3.5
SMELL-4 (begin)
SMELL-4 (end)
SMELL-5
HEARING-1
HEARING-2
HEARING-3
VISION-1.1
VISION-1.2
VISION-1.3
VISION-2.1
VISION-2.2
VISION-2.3
VISION-2.4
VISION-3
VISION-4
VISION-5
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

impressions received by this sense suffice to dominate all others. An 

animal not only receives adequate sexual excitement from olfactory 

stimuli, but those stimuli often suffice to counterbalance all the 

evidence of the other senses. 

 

We may observe this very well in the case of the dog. Thus, a 

young dog, well known to me, who had never had connection with a 

bitch, but was always in the society of its father, once met the 

latter directly after the elder dog had been with a bitch. He 

immediately endeavored to behave toward the elder dog, in spite 

of angry repulses, exactly as a dog behaves toward a bitch in 

heat. The messages received by the sense of smell were 

sufficiently urgent not only to set the sexual mechanism in 

action, but to overcome the experiences of a lifetime. There is 

an interesting chapter on the sense of smell in the mental life 

of the dog in Giessler's _Psychologie des Geruches_, 1894, 

Chapter XI, Passy (in the appendix to his memoir on olfaction, 

_L'Annee Psychologique_, 1895) gives the result of some 

interesting experiments as to the effects of perfume on dogs; 

civet and castoreum were found to have the most powerfully 

exciting effect. 

 

The influences of smell are equally omnipotent in the sexual life 

of many insects. Thus, Fere has found that in cockchafers sexual 

coupling failed to take place when the antennae, which are the 

organs of smell, were removed; he also found that males, after 

they had coupled with females, proved sexually attractive to 

other males (_Comptes Rendus de la Societe de Biologie_, May 21, 

1898). Fere similarly found that, in a species of _Bombyx_, males 

after contact with females sometimes proved attractive to other 

males, although no abnormal relationships followed. (_Soc. de 

Biol_, July 30, 1898.) 

 

With the advent of the higher apes, and especially of man, all this has 

been changed. The sense of smell, indeed, still persists universally and 

it is still also exceedingly delicate, though often neglected.[25] It is, 

moreover, a useful auxiliary in the exploration of the external world, 

for, in contrast to the very few sensations furnished to us by touch and 

by taste, we are acquainted with a vast number of smells, though the 

information they give us is frequently vague. An experienced perfumer, 

says Piesse, will have two hundred odors in his laboratory and can 

distinguish them all. To a sensitive nose nearly everything smells. Passy 

goes so far as to state that he has "never met with any object that is 

really inodorous when one pays attention to it, not even excepting glass," 

and, though we can scarcely accept this statement absolutely,--especially 

in view of the careful experiments of Ayrton, which show that, contrary 

to a common belief, metals when perfectly clean and free from traces of 

contact with the skin or with salt solutions have no smell,--odor is still 


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