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Table of contents
PREFACE
TOUCH-1
TOUCH-2
TOUCH-3 (begin)
TOUCH-3 (end)
TOUCH-4 (begin)
TOUCH-4 (end)
SMELL-1
SMELL-2
SMELL-3.1
SMELL-3.2
SMELL-3.3
SMELL-3.4
SMELL-3.5
SMELL-4 (begin)
SMELL-4 (end)
SMELL-5
HEARING-1
HEARING-2
HEARING-3
VISION-1.1
VISION-1.2
VISION-1.3
VISION-2.1
VISION-2.2
VISION-2.3
VISION-2.4
VISION-3
VISION-4
VISION-5
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

II. 

 

Rise of the Study of Olfaction--Cloquet--Zwaardemaker--The Theory of 

Smell--The Classification of Odors--The Special Characteristics of 

Olfactory Sensation in Man--Smell as the Sense of Imagination--Odors as 

Nervous Stimulants--Vasomotor and Muscular Effects--Odorous Substances as 

Drugs. 

 

 

During the eighteenth century a great impetus was given to the 

physiological and psychological study of the senses by the philosophical 

doctrines of Locke and the English school generally which then prevailed 

in Europe. These thinkers had emphasized the immense importance of the 

information derived through the senses in building up the intellect, so 

that the study of all the sensory channels assumed a significance which it 

had never possessed before. The olfactory sense fully shared in the 

impetus thus given to sensory investigation. At the beginning of the 

nineteenth century a distinguished French physician, Hippolyte Cloquet, a 

disciple of Cabanis, devoted himself more especially to this subject. 

After publishing in 1815 a preliminary work, he issued in 1821 his 

_Osphresiologie, ou Traite des odeurs, du sens et des organes de 

l'Olfaction_, a complete monograph on the anatomy, physiology, psychology, 

and pathology of the olfactory organ and its functions, and a work that 

may still be consulted with profit, if indeed it can even yet be said to 

be at every point superseded. After Cloquet's time the study of the sense 

of smell seems to have fallen into some degree of discredit. For more than 

half a century no important progress was made in this field. Serious 

investigators seemed to have become shy of the primitive senses generally, 

and the subject of smell was mainly left to those interested in "curious" 

subjects. Many interesting observations were, however, incidentally made; 

thus Laycock, who was a pioneer in so many by-paths of psychology and 

anthropology, showed a special interest in the olfactory sense, and 

frequently touched on it in his _Nervous Diseases of Women_ and 

elsewhere. The writer who more than any other has in recent years restored 

the study of the sense of smell from a by-path to its proper position as a 

highway for investigation is without doubt Professor Zwaardemaker, of 

Utrecht. The invention of his first olfactometer in 1888 and the 

appearance in 1895 of his great work _Die Physiologie des Geruchs_ have 

served to give the physiology of the sense of smell an assured status and 

to open the way anew for much fruitful investigation, while a number of 

inquirers in many countries have had their attention directed to the 

elucidation of this sense. 

 

Notwithstanding, however, the amount of work which has been done in this 

field during recent years, it cannot be said that the body of assured 

conclusions so far reached is large. The most fundamental principles of 

olfactory physiology and psychology are still somewhat vague and 

uncertain. Although sensations of smell are numerous and varied, in this 


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