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Table of contents
PREFACE
TOUCH-1
TOUCH-2
TOUCH-3 (begin)
TOUCH-3 (end)
TOUCH-4 (begin)
TOUCH-4 (end)
SMELL-1
SMELL-2
SMELL-3.1
SMELL-3.2
SMELL-3.3
SMELL-3.4
SMELL-3.5
SMELL-4 (begin)
SMELL-4 (end)
SMELL-5
HEARING-1
HEARING-2
HEARING-3
VISION-1.1
VISION-1.2
VISION-1.3
VISION-2.1
VISION-2.2
VISION-2.3
VISION-2.4
VISION-3
VISION-4
VISION-5
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

 

The vibratory hypothesis of the action of odors has had some 

influence on the recent physiologists who have chiefly occupied 

themselves with olfaction. "It is probable," Zwaardemaker writes 

(_L'Annee Psychologique_, 1898), "that aroma is a 

physico-chemical attribute of the molecules"; he points out that 

there is an intimate analogy between color and odor, and remarks 

that this analogy leads us to suppose in an aroma ether 

vibrations of which the period is determined by the structure of 

the molecule. 

 

Since the physiology of olfaction is yet so obscure it is not 

surprising that we have no thoroughly scientific classification 

of smells, notwithstanding various ambitious attempts to reach a 

classification. The classification adopted by Zwaardemaker is 

founded on the ancient scheme of Linnaeus, and may here be 

reproduced:-- 

 

I. Ethereal odors (chiefly esters; Rimmel's fruity series). 

 

II. Aromatic odors (terpenes, camphors, and the spicy, 

herbaceous, rosaceous, and almond series; the chemical types are 

well determined: cineol, eugenol, anethol, geraniol, 

benzaldehyde). 

 

III. The balsamic odors (chiefly aldehydes, Rimmel's jasmin, 

violet, and balsamic series, with the chemical types: terpineol, 

ionone, vanillin). 

 

IV. The ambrosiacal odors (ambergris and musk). 

 

V. The alliaceous odors, with the cacodylic group (asafoetida, 

ichthyol, etc.). 

 

VI. Empyreumatic odors. 

 

VII. Valerianaceous odors (Linnaeus's _Odores hircini_, the capryl 

group, largely composed of sexual odors). 

 

VIII. Narcotic odors (Linnaeus's _Odores tetri_). 

 

IX. Stenches. 

 

A valuable and interesting memoir, "Revue Generale sur les 

Sensations Olfactives," by J. Passy, the chief French authority 

on this subject, will be found in the second volume of _L'Annee 

Psychologique_, 1895. In the fifth issue of the same year-book 

(for 1898) Zwaardemaker presents a full summary of his work and 

views, "Les Sensations Olfactives, leurs Combinaisons et leurs 

Compensations." A convenient, but less authoritative, summary of 

the facts of normal and pathological olfaction will be found in a 

little volume of the "Actualites Medicales" series by Dr. Collet, 

_L'Odorat et ses Troubles_, 1904. In a little book entitled 

_Wegweiser zu einer Psychologie des Geruches_ (1894) Giessler has 

sought to outline a psychology of smell, but his sketch can only 

be regarded as tentative and provisional. 

 

At the outset, nevertheless, it seems desirable that we should at least 

have some conception of the special characteristics which mark the great 

and varied mass of sensations reaching the brain through the channel of 

the olfactory organ. The main special character of olfactory images seems 

to be conditioned by the fact that they are intermediate in character 


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