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Table of contents
PREFACE
TOUCH-1
TOUCH-2
TOUCH-3 (begin)
TOUCH-3 (end)
TOUCH-4 (begin)
TOUCH-4 (end)
SMELL-1
SMELL-2
SMELL-3.1
SMELL-3.2
SMELL-3.3
SMELL-3.4
SMELL-3.5
SMELL-4 (begin)
SMELL-4 (end)
SMELL-5
HEARING-1
HEARING-2
HEARING-3
VISION-1.1
VISION-1.2
VISION-1.3
VISION-2.1
VISION-2.2
VISION-2.3
VISION-2.4
VISION-3
VISION-4
VISION-5
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

 

Rousseau (in _Emile_, Bk. II) regarded smell as the sense of the 

imagination. So, also, at an earlier period, it was termed 

(according to Cloquet) by Cardano. Cloquet frequently insisted on 

the qualities of odors which cause them to appeal to the 

imagination; on their irregular and inconstant character; on 

their power of intoxicating the mind on some occasions; on the 

curious individual and racial preferences in the matter of odors. 

He remarked on the fact that the Persians employed asafoetida as 

a seasoning, while valerian was accounted a perfume in antiquity. 

(Cloquet, _Osphresiologie_, pp. 28, 45, 71, 112.) It may be 

added, as a curious example familiar to most people of the 

dependence of the emotional tone of a smell on its associations, 

that, while the exhalations of other people's bodies are 

ordinarily disagreeable to us, such is not the case with our own; 

this is expressed in the crude and vigorous dictum of the 

Elizabethan poet, Marston, "Every man's dung smell sweet i' his 

own nose." There are doubtless many implications, moral as well 

as psychological, in that statement. 

 

The modern authorities on olfaction, Passy and Zwaardemaker, both 

alike insist on the same characteristics of the sense of smell: 

its extreme acuity and yet its vagueness. "We live in a world of 

odor," Zwaardemaker remarks (_L'Annee Psychologique_, 1898, p. 

203), "as we live in a world of light and of sound. But smell 

yields us no distinct ideas grouped in regular order, still less 

that are fixed in the memory as a grammatical discipline. 

Olfactory sensations awake vague and half-understood perceptions, 

which are accompanied by very strong emotion. The emotion 

dominates us, but the sensation which was the cause of it remains 

unperceived." Even in the same individual there are wide 

variations in the sensitiveness to odors at different times, more 

especially as regards faint odors; Passy (_L'Annee 

Psychologique_, 1895, p. 387) brings forward some observations on 

this point. 

 

Maudsley noted the peculiarly suggestive power of odors; "there 

are certain smells," he remarked, "which never fail to bring back 

to me instantly and visibly scenes of my boyhood"; many of us 

could probably say the same. Another writer (E. Dillon, "A 

Neglected Sense," _Nineteenth Century_, April, 1894) remarks that 

"no sense has a stronger power of suggestion." 

 

Ribot has made an interesting investigation as to the prevalence 

and nature of the emotional memory of odors (_Psychology of the 

Emotions_, Chapter XI). By "emotional memory" is meant the 

spontaneous or voluntary revivability of the image, olfactory or 

other. (For the general question, see an article by F. Pillon, 

"La Memoire Affective, son Importance Theorique et Pratique," 

_Revue Philosophique_, February, 1901; also Paulhan, "Sur la 


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