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Table of contents
PREFACE
TOUCH-1
TOUCH-2
TOUCH-3 (begin)
TOUCH-3 (end)
TOUCH-4 (begin)
TOUCH-4 (end)
SMELL-1
SMELL-2
SMELL-3.1
SMELL-3.2
SMELL-3.3
SMELL-3.4
SMELL-3.5
SMELL-4 (begin)
SMELL-4 (end)
SMELL-5
HEARING-1
HEARING-2
HEARING-3
VISION-1.1
VISION-1.2
VISION-1.3
VISION-2.1
VISION-2.2
VISION-2.3
VISION-2.4
VISION-3
VISION-4
VISION-5
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2.3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

Memoire Affective," _Revue Philosophique_, December, 1902 and 

January, 1903.) Ribot found that 40 per cent. of persons are 

unable to revive any such images of taste or smell; 48 per cent, 

could revive some; 12 per cent, declared themselves capable of 

reviving all, or nearly all, at pleasure. In some persons there 

is no necessary accompanying revival of visual or tactile 

representations, but in the majority the revived odor ultimately 

excites a corresponding visual image. The odors most frequently 

recalled were pinks, musk, violets, heliotrope, carbolic acid, 

the smell of the country, of grass, etc. Pieron (_Revue 

Philosophique_, December, 1902) has described the special power 

possessed by vague odors, in his own case, of evoking ancient 

impressions. 

 

Dr. J.N. Mackenzie (_American Journal of the Medical Sciences_, 

January, 1886) considers that civilization exerts an influence in 

heightening or encouraging the influence of olfaction as it 

affects our emotions and judgment, and that, in the same way, as 

we ascend the social scale the more readily our minds are 

influenced and perhaps perverted by impressions received through 

the sense of smell. 

 

Odors are powerful stimulants to the whole nervous system, causing, like 

other stimulants, an increase of energy which, if excessive or prolonged, 

leads to nervous exhaustion. Thus, it is well recognized in medicine that 

the aromatics containing volatile oils (such as anise, cinnamon, 

cardamoms, cloves, coriander, and peppermint) are antispasmodics and 

anaesthetics, and that they stimulate digestion, circulation, and the 

nervous system, in large doses producing depression. The carefully 

arranged plethysmographic experiments of Shields, at the Johns Hopkins 

University, have shown that olfactory sensations, by their action on the 

vasomotor system, cause an increase of blood in the brain and sometimes in 

addition stimulation of the heart; musk, wintergreen, wood violet, and 

especially heliotrope were found to act strongly in these ways.[27] 

 

Fere's experiments with the dynamometer and the ergograph have greatly 

contributed to illustrate the stimulating effects of odors. Thus, he found 

that smelling musk suffices to double muscular effort. With a number of 

odorous substances he has found that muscular work is temporarily 

heightened; when taste stimulation was added the increase of energy, 

notably when using lemon was "colossal." A kind of "sensorial 

intoxication" could be produced by the inhalation of odors and the whole 

system stimulated to greater activity; the visual acuity was increased, 

and electric and general excitability heightened.[28] Such effects may be 

obtained in perfectly healthy persons, though both Shields and Fere have 

found that in highly nervous persons the effects are liable to be much 

greater. It is doubtless on this account that it is among civilized 


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